They tend to be the same kind of people who in any other circumstance would join an anti-globalization movement or, you know, an environmentalist movement or a civil rights movement.  What they are looking for is profound and immediate global transformation.  Well, again, you can only imagine, it doesn’t take a lot of imagination, but you can imagine what kind of person would be attracted to that kind of ideology; the exact opposite of the kind of person who would be attracted to Islamism.  So, what I absolutely believe and preach constantly that the key to dealing with Islamic violence or Islamist violence, excuse me, the key to dealing with Islamist violence is not just political participation and a stake in the society themselves, but precisely the kind of socioeconomic development that is so important to these undeveloped parts of the world, that is not how we deal with Jihadism.  No amount of social development or economic development is going to make Bin Laden go away.  He’s not interested in any kind of material concerns.  Indeed, he uses the lack of social or economic development in places like Palestine and Lebanon as a rallying cry, as a way to draw people to him who may share those similar grievances but who have absolutely nothing in common with al-Qaida’s ideology.  So, I suppose, to contradict what I just said, you know, social development, economic development would actually blunt the popularity of these Jihadist groups because it would make them less relevant but it wouldn’t make them go away and I think that’s the important thing.  On that note, I think President Obama is doing exactly the right thing this couple of days.  This…the Entrepreneurship Summit that he has called in which he has brought business leaders and entrepreneurs from Muslim- majority states around the world, to at the very least, just, kind of, give them a little shot in the arm and say, look, this is what we’re going to be doing from here on out.  We’re going to work with you people who are already on the ground and give you whatever tools you need to empower you, to lift people in your countries out of poverty, to give them jobs, to give them an opportunity to be stake holders in society.  That I think is the best way to deal with the problem of Religious Nationalism and indirectly as I say, it would deal with Religious Transnationalists groups as well.  Thank you.

Interviewer 1:    Yes, there’s a question up here in the front.

Interviewer 3:    Thank you for the presentation, it’s great and I read both of your books and thank you for that.

Interviewer 1:    I’m sorry, could we…please identify…

Interviewer 3:    Sure, Ilhan Tanir from Hurriyet Daily News, Turkish Press. I have quick couple of questions.  You mentioned that, I believe 2006, Bush administration urged the civil war between, you know, Gaza between the Hamas and Fatah, would you please elaborate on that and second one is, your statement that I just heard two-state solution is that please, would you elaborate on that and the last question is, Robert Wright has this book, “The Evolution of God” and he actually predicts that the globalization is, it’s not hard to think not far to think that these three big religions might become as a worldwide religion sometime in the future because of people, you know, getting closer.

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