Nevertheless we have this technique which is now being particularly used by radical Jihadist groups and we also recognize that its effect is dramatic, not necessarily real.  While 9/11 was terribly a terrible shock and the plane going down was certainly a dramatic effect and 17 sailors killed on the USS Cole are dramatic headline events.  We must keep things in perspective since 9/11 over 250,000 Americans have been killed in automobile accidents.  Thirty thousand or more a year in the United States alone die in automobile accidents.  We don’t seem to be upset by that but the dramatic effect of the terrorist incident is significant and effective.  Suicide terrorism raises a question which we all wonder how can it work?  How can it be done?  There are two aspects to it.  First of all no group can mount a suicide terrorist campaign unless they have some social support in their community.  There must be some basic support for what they claim to doing that will enable the community to provide them with candidates and support rather than condemnation because any group that has seriously had fundamental condemnation by most of its society will not be able to do it.  It’s not that the society that supports the terrorist group approves in suicide terrorism or finds it good is that they feel that the objectives – the declared objectives are sufficiently important and that they will live with and however gradually support the terrorist movement if only in absentia.  The question that raises so many people around the world – how can it be done?  How can people do this?  How does the individual commit himself to doing suicide?  Psychologists have an explanation to this because they have studied suicide for long, long time.  Basically they said that there are two types of suicides – what they call the traditional, individual, egoistic suicide.  A person who commits suicide for wrong personal reasons, suffering from disease, despondent, personal problems which seem to be more than they can handle, psychological person but basically there is nothing new about this.  This is an old tradition that exists in human society and this is called egoistic personal suicide.

The other is altruistic suicide which again is nothing new in human society.  An individual who feels for some reason or another respect for human community values, a sense of duty, a sense that his community is being unfairly, unjustly treated in a significant way that the person feels a willingness to sacrifice for his community.  This in a sense is nothing more than one step further than the willingness in the soldier to die for his country.  But at some point for some people, for various reasons that’s very complicated how they’re brought up in the community, how they’re recruited, how they’re trained, the individual is willing to go that extra step to sacrifice himself for their community which they feel is suffering historic grievance and wrong.  As they say, what we see now though is movements that have consciously drawn on this human capacity, organized the way to recruit, train and launch people to perform this duty for their society.  The important thing to remember I think is that suicide believes suicide, suicide movements believe that suicide attacks are effective and will advanced their goals and therefore suicide terrorism is on the rise because terrorists groups have learned that it is both cheap and effective and we’re gonna see more of it.  Let me stop here, I’ve been going – I’m not going to talk about all of what is terrorism, all of how it works in the world but identified some of the characteristics about it and I think the most important comment I would like to make is that suicide terrorist movement by terrorist groups is not a single, discreet activity in this part of wider political activity in the world we’re in, it’s part of the activity of insurgent groups fighting established order in governments and it is really a political phenomena which must be kept within context and not seen as some sort of special and unique never seen before major existential threat to our governments and our society.  It is not.  It is a part of the world we’re in which has all sorts of problems and political terrorism is one manifestation only of this broader and more generalized social political problems were facing.  Thank you.  How do we run a – do Q and A?