Bronwyn: Yeah, I know, I’m so sorry about that. Basically, yeah, I mean the 4.5 system was set up a long time ago before the current iteration of Sheikh Sharif’s regime and what it means is basically that there are four major clan families in Somalia and then there are minority clans. So 4.5 is a way of sort of allotting representation in the government to the clans. The major clans get four sort of shares and the minority clans get half a share. Now in theory, what that has intended to do is to provide equal representation in the government. So when it comes to resolving the land disputes for example, ideally everyone has a fair say in how things are resolved but in practice it is really hard to determine legitimate representation. Somewhat can be seated in a Darod seat and really be linked to Hawiye business interest or vice versa. And I think the concern also is that some positions in the government are much more important than others and if the important positions are being dominated by one clan as opposed to equally shared, then there is a perception that those interest have more of a say on how things are managed than was intended by that, that egalitarian structure. A lot of Somalis have a real problem and you know I don’t speak with them clearly but a lot of them have a real problem with a system of government that’s effectively based on an ethnic quota. It’s fundamentally undemocratic and in practice it really hasn’t worked very well. And you might wish to respond to that but…

Moderator: Well, I don’t know if we have time for one more question but… no? We have to wrap it up unfortunately. Thanks very much for great questions and a great presentation from Bronwyn who I think has raised a lot of new thinking on how we approach this tangled issue and not particularly like her approach, obviously. We all agree on one thing which is a current policy isn’t working. But Bronwyn has tried to follow this through and come up with some solutions. I think she is right to stress this argument that less is sometimes more, you know that interventions are never in part sure and that they can aggravate situations. And US policies towards Somalia particularly in the best part of this decade is proof of that and also I think Bronwyn makes important point about avoiding of a nation building strategies and this bottomed up approach of building governments from local level, I think is important and finally the point that is obvious but a very important one nonetheless, US foreign policy not just Somalia but in Africa or in general should not be approached to this sort of narrow anti-terrorism lens. I think that’s an important point which needs reinforcing. So perhaps you join with me in thanking Bronwyn for her time and interest in the subject.

[Hands clapping]

[End]

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