Interviewee:    But we have a bit of a chicken and an egg problem here.  The question is who gives on what.  And then, there is a question of what role does the United States play?  When Turkey got permission to start the chapters, the United States played a major role in terms of advocating on Turkey’s behalf in Europe.  And it depends on who you talked to.  They will tell you that this was good, but this was bad.  It was effective or it was really painful.  We’re in a different place now.  We don’t have Schroder and Chirac anymore.

Interviewer:    Uh-hmm.

Interviewee:    We have this post 2004 enlargement indigestion in Europe.  I think everyone here probably knows that President Obama made a very forward statement about Turkish membership when he was in Ankara or Istanbul.

Interviewer:    He did.

Interviewee:    I was in France when that happened.  I was in Paris.  You know when you’re in the hotel room, you turned on the TV and it’s just kind of on, right?

Interviewer:    Right.

Interviewee:    Well repeatedly, I saw President Sarkozy looking very angry.

Interviewer:    [Laughing]

Interviewee:    Saying this was Europe’s decision, and the American president, charming though he may be, does not have anything to say about this.

Interviewer:    Oh.

Interviewee:    So I think that there is an…I understand why the Obama administration wanted to say that to Turkey.  I understand why at that point they wanted to say that.  I think that was good.  But I think going forward we have to realize that such issues can be provocative.

Interviewer:    Uh-hmm.